Friday, March 2, 2012

Beware of crab apple scab. The season is almost here.


The dreaded apple scab.  Apple scab is one of the most serious diseases of ornamental crabapples. It is caused by one fungus, Venturia inaequalis. Apple scab mainly affects members of the rose family, including nearly all commercial varieties of apple, crabapple, hawthorn, mountain-ash, cotoneaster, firethorn, and common pear trees.


SYMPTOMS

apple scab lesionsApple scab can be observed on leaves, blossoms, fruit, and, less frequently, on young succulent shoots. Apple scab is most commonly seen in the spring and summer.  The most obvious symptoms occur on leaves and fruit during these seasons, and look like small velvety brown to olive-green spots that enlarge and darken to become more or less circular. Lesions are superficial with feathery, indistinct margins. When infections are numerous, young leaves become curled and distorted. Severely infected leaves and fruit fall prematurely. Scab lesions on remaining fruit and twigs become corky, cracked, and rough. Symptoms on mountain-ash and other hosts are similar to those on crabapple, with emphasis on lesions on its leaves and premature leaf fall.

CONDITIONS FAVORING DISEASE

Apple scab is most severe during spring and early summer when the humidity is high and the temperature is moderate. Overwintering fungal spores are produced in the diseased leaves on the ground. In most years, the first fungal spores mature and are capable of causing infections in the spring at about the time of budbreak (leaf expansion). Fungal spores become airborne following rainfall and continue to be discharged over a period of 1-3 months. The peak period of spore dispersal often occurs near the end of bloom (pink to full-bloom stages). Whether infection occurs or not depends on the period of wetness and the temperature. Fewer hours of wetness are required for infection at high temperatures than at low. It is estimated that  9-14 hours of wetness are needed for initial infection to occur in the typical northern Illinois spring with a temperature range of 50-60o F.
Once the fungus has become established on the host, it produces secondary spores which help to re-infect new leaves throughout the summer. These spores are spread by splashing rain or irrigation and wind to new leaf or fruit surfaces, and give rise to new lesions. Several “secondary” cycles may occur during the growing season if wet weather prevails during the summer.

CONTROL

Plant Resistance

The best way to prevent apple scab is to plant resistant crabapples. Many species and varieties of 'Malus' are resistant to the scab fungus. Some crabapples especially resistant to apple scab include M. ‘Adirondack’, M. baccata ‘Jackii’, M. ‘Beverly’, M. ‘Dolgo’, M. ‘Donald Wyman’, M. ‘Mary Potter’, M. ‘Molazam’ (Molten Lava),  M. ‘Prairifire’,  M. ‘Red Jewel’.  M. ‘Sutyram’ (Sugar Tyme),  M. ‘White Angel’, and  M. ‘Zumi Wooster’

Cultural
The apple scab fungus overwinters on fallen leaves and infected twigs so collecting and removing or composting these leaves and twigs will reduce the source of infection. Sanitation practices, such as leaf litter removal and pruning, should be done in the fall or winter before bud break occurs. Earthworms and litter decomposing microorganisms degrade fallen leaves and help reduce the overwintering population of the scab fungus. Natural leaf decomposition can be accelerated by composting leaves (piles must be mixed regularly and reach temperatures of at least 120oF throughout) and applying nitrogen fertilizer (e.g., urea) to the leaves in the fall.

Chemical

Fungicide control programs for scab should be integrated with sanitation and other cultural management practices. Apple scab can be effectively managed with fungicides by controlling primary infections. It is important that sprays are applied according to plant development, with the first spray at bud swell and additional sprays at 10-to-14-day intervals. The number of fungicide spray applications required varies with many factors, including weather conditions (rainfall), the susceptibility of the plant, the rate of plant growth development, the fungicide used, and the amount of fungal inoculum present.

If you are a do-it-yourselfer, please, READ LABEL INSTRUCTIONS ON CONTAINER FOR DILUTION RATES AND METHODS OF APPLICATION

I would suggest, however, when dealing with chemicals, you should refer to a tree service that has experience with these types of fungicides and trees.  Trees "R" Us, Inc. has been treating trees for diseases since the mid-nineties.   We are confident in diagnosing your trees and treating them effectively.  In addition to our highly qualified staff, we have 4 arborists on staff to develop a treatment plan for your trees and plants.

Beware of apple scab.  It strikes quick and hard.  Please contact Trees "R" Us, Inc. for a professional evaluation of your trees.
www.treesrusinc.com or 847-913-9069.

Thanks for reading,
Nick



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